Screen flows, wireframes, prototypes and guts.

Following on from my last post where we were looking at gathering user research and requirements, here’s an update on the recent  team workshop where we focussed on the structure and skeleton of the LAMP.

1. The 20 second “Gut” test

We kicked off the session with a 20 Second “Gut” Test, which is technique used to clarify preferences, and better understand the team’s views on the aesthetics of visual design. The test showed a screen capture of 20 different analytics dashboards / user interfaces / visual elements, for 20 seconds only. Each participant has to score their gut reaction to the slide 1-5 (5 being the highest) and make any notes.

This was a really enlightening exercise, which really helped the team to articulate what they did and didn’t like. Looking at our top /bottom 5 there were very apparent themes running between them:

  • Clean and simple style, with space to let the content breath
  • Informative charts with the right balance of detail
  • Modular blocks of content held within frames
  • Restricted colour palette
  • Visualisations of the data were honest and unadorned.

2. Developing the screen flows and navigation model

The navigation model is the big picture, or the “birds eye view” of the system. It considers where users start, how they get from here to there, and what all of the major elements will be. This can then be summarised as a flow diagram that the models the user journeys.

Storyboarding the user experience

  • We started off as a group using our understanding of the tool to build a prototype screen flow.
  • We then validated this against the real life use cases / job stories.
  • We then tried to break the system we’d created. What were the extreme limitations of the system, and had these been taken into account.


This followed an iterative design process: Sketch > Prototype > Present > Validate > Repeat until we had exhausted our time. Collectively  we had formulated a solid idea that, that has been validated against our user research. This can now be taken away and explored in more detail by the UX team, modelled and then presented to the CAB for feedback.

3. Getting into the details

Low fidelity prototyping

Based on the screen flows and navigation model we had created it was clear that there were 2 key areas of action to focus on; the chart creation screen and the Dashboard area where charts are stored. We wanted to start understanding these in more detail and begin to wireframe the user journey, the interactions and functions of these screens. We had generated loads of ideas for these screens and we needed to capture them. We’re not intending hammer down every detail but rather to create a consensus that can be refined outside of the workshop.

The eight guiding principles of prototyping

  1. Understand your audience and intent
  2. Plan a little – prototype the rest
  3. Set expectations
  4. You can sketch
  5. It’s a prototype — Not the Mona Lisa!
  6. If you cant make it, fake it
  7. Prototype only what you need
  8. Reduce risk prototype early and often.

6-8-5 Design studio.

The first iteration of wireframing follows a 6-8-5 rule – do 6-8 sketches, on an 8-up grid in 5 minutes. The sketches can be different versions of a particular aspect you’re working on or a storyboard workflow (before, during and after login) or mix and match! Keep it high level, and get just enough detail down, to convey your concept. When the 5 min is up each person presents their ideas and the group critiques the ideas.

Quantity trumps quality at first.

The idea here is to get a large quantity of ideas rather than quality.  Here’s a short example to illustrate what we mean by this.

“A ceramics teacher announced he was dividing his class into two groups. All those on the left side of the studio would be graded solely on the quantity of work they produced, all those on the right graded solely on its quality.

His procedure was simple: on the final day of class he would weigh the work of the “quantity” group: 50 pounds of pots rated an A, 40 pounds a B, and so on. Those being graded on “quality”, however, needed to produce only one pot – albeit a perfect one – to get an A.

Well, come grading time and a curious fact emerged: the works of highest quality were all produced by the group being graded for quantity!

It seems that while the “quantity” group was busily churning out piles of work – and learning from their mistakes – the “quality” group had sat theorizing about perfection, and in the end had little more to show for their efforts than grandiose theories and a pile of dead clay.”

This story perfectly articulates one of the fundamental Lean UX principles: prioritize making over analysis. Instead of sitting around, debating ad nauseam which direction to go in, what features make sense, which colors perfectly reflect your brand values or which words will get your customers to convert, just make something. It won’t be perfect. It won’t work as well as you’d hoped at first but it will teach you something. You’ll get some feedback, some insight on how building your product can be better and you’ll do a better job the second time around.

A lot of the methods and ideas we’ve used in this workshop have been taken from ‘Prototyping – A practitioner’s guide’  by Todd Zaki Warfel ( In his book he talks about the value of prototyping, the value of show, tell and experience.

Prototyping reduces misinterpretation

Take a 60 page requirements document. Bring in 15 people into a room. Hand it out. Let them read it all. Now ask them what you’re building. You’re going to get 15 different answers. Prototypes are a more concrete and tactile representation of the system you’re building. They provide tangible experiences.

He then goes on to say moving from  requirements-dependant process to a prototype-dependant process has increased consensus on interpretation to 60-80% to +90%. It also requires far less effort and time for everyone involved. Taking this user centred design approach is essential for LAMP as the system is still being explored, designed and interpreted. Manifesting the development work in a physical form helps to generate hundreds of ideas, some will be great, some will be not so. But even these not so great ideas can be the catalyst for great solutions.

The ideas that were generated will be explored in more detail by the UX team, modelled, and validated. We are then meeting again for another wire framing session with the LAMP team to work through more of these details ready to presented to the CAB for feedback.

Sketch > Prototype > Present > Validate > Repeat


Personas, job stories and simple planes: wireframing a LAMP interface

Let me start by introducing myself – my name is Benjamin Perry  and I am the Creative Design Coordinator at Mimas. My role on this project is alongside Leigh Morris as the User Experience (UX) Team who are responsible for designing the website itself. As part of this team it’s crucial that I not only understand but am involved with the Information Architecture and the User Interaction Design (the Skeleton Plane – more about planes below), However my particular focus is the visual appearance of the website itself (the Surface Plane).

Having recently read the seminal work of Jesse James Garrett on The Elements of User Experience , it’s clear that where I join this project it has already been through some good User Centered Design (UCD) processes. In Garrett’s book he talks about UX design consisting of 5 layers; the Strategy Plane, the Scope Plane, the Structure Plane, the Skeleton Plane and finally the Surface Plane. “These five planes provide a conceptual framework for talking about user experience problems and the tools we use to solve them”


Jesse James Garrett's simple planes Jesse James Garrett’s simple planes

As you work through each of the planes the issues that you have to deal with move from being abstract to more concrete. Each of these planes is dependent on the ones below it, but this does not mean that each plane needs to be finalized before the next can be started. It’s much better to be flexible; sometimes decisions made on an upper plane may force a reevaluation (or an evaluation for the first time) of an issue from a lower plane.

As I said before my dealings are mainly with the Skeleton and Surface planes, so I’m very much at the sharp end of the process. My work requires the planes before these to have been clearly defined (but not finalized!). As much as I’d like it, I don’t ever expect to be handed all the project brief and documentation then sail through the work without having any questions and get sign off first go – It’s never going to happen. User Centered Design is core to our business at Mimas so the UX team need to be the ones preaching this gospel the loudest. If we can enlighten people to the process we use and give them the tools to help work through the issues that they are faced with, then we will not only build better products but our jobs will be made much easier too.

So lets take a step back and look at what’s happened so far:

David Kay has been looking at the Epic Level narrative with the User Stories. These have been essential to help provide a clear business case for this project and define its strategy – the Strategy Plane.

Bethan Ruddock  has then used these to create some Personas, which have been used to create workflows. These are step-by-step guides that detail how a user would potentially perform a tasks based around of the features of the website (we’ve made these available). These have been used to start to flesh out the Scope Plane and also start to inform the Structure Plane.

The UX team has then taken these workflows along with some early prototype wireframes and visuals to create interactive walkthroughs of how these tasks might be achieved in the UI (we used InVision to do this – its fantastic!) – Structure, Skeleton and Surface Planes.

These have been essential to help generate discussion not only within the team but the wider LAMP CAP group. Seeing something physical in front of you is very powerful and it certainly highlighted some of the issues on the lower planes that needed to be readdressed or hadn’t yet been addressed.

In discussing these issues I was reminded of this blog post by Alan Klement  that Leigh had found which introduced the idea of Job Stories. In his post he summarises –

“… the problem with user stories is that it’s too many assumptions and doesn’t acknowledge causality. When a task is put in the format of a user story (As a [type of user], I want [some action], so that [outcome] ) there’s no room to ask ‘why’ – you’re essentially locked into a particular sequence with no context.”

Klement says with mature defined projects his team were able to talk through and understand proposed changes however “because our canvas is blank, we are having trouble getting on the same page when it comes to customer motivations, events and expectations. But today, things have turned around. I’ve come across a great way to use the jobs to be done philosophy to help define features. I call them Job Stories”

This immediately drew parallels with our project and seemed a natural solution for us for us to gather more information to inform our UCD process. We needed to get a more definitive idea of what people want to do with LAMP but also wrap that in real world context and expectations. With the CAP group full of future users of the site we thought this would be the perfect opportunity to introduce this idea and get them to tell us about their own Job Stories. So we gave the group blank forms to fill in following Klement’s process: (situation) When _____ , (Motivation) I want to _____ , (Expected Outcome) so I can _____ .

Getting the CAP group to think in this way was really positive. The information we collected is helping to define the features for this first phase of the project as well as generating discussion around future enhancements.

As a first outing using Job Stories we found this to be very successful. I’m not sure we did this in the same way that Alan Klement did it with his team, but it certainly generated lots of discussion, highlighted issues and gave us much more information to work with than we had before. What’s more, this information is not based on assumptions, as with the personas, but based on real life users, which is what we set out to achieve. You can see the job stories the CAP created.

We’ll be using the information and insights from these job stories as we work on the next stage of developing the LAMP interface.

  • Sketch of suggested main dashboard page
  • Sketch of sub-dashboard on collection management
  • Sketch of sub-dashboard on student use

We had a brainstorming meeting at Mimas in late March, with Ellen, Graham, Joy, Lee and Bethan, to look at potential use cases and to sketch out what we thought the dashboard might look like. This will be taken to the Community Advisory and Planning Group meeting in April for feedback.

Mimas’s designer Ben will be working to prettify our rough sketches, but here are our first ideas of what we think we might include in the dashboard, and how it might look. Click on each of the images to go to a larger version. Thoughts? Questions? Comments? We’d love to hear what you think about the dashboards or the use cases.